Markets working to support sustainable development

North America

CITES

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is a voluntary international agreement signed by 175 national governments. It provides a framework for subjecting the international trade of certain specimens to monitoring and control. It is legally binding and signatories must ensure that adequate national measures are undertaken to comply to it.

Species covered by the convention can be categorised into three main types (detailed in Annexes).

ICMM: Partnerships for Development

The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS)

The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) (Version 3, 2011) is a Greenhouse Gas Programme, describing itself as a ‘comprehensive quality assurance system used to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions and credits’. It applies to offset projects in the voluntary carbon trading sector and was established by the Verified Carbon Standard Association (VCSA).

American Carbon Registry Standards

The American Carbon Registry (ACR) has developed a number of standards to validate and verify carbon emissions reduction projects in diverse sectors including landfill gas, fuel switching, methane capture, forest carbon, truck idling, anaerobic digestion, carbon capture and storage, and rural solar power.

The American Carbon Registry publishes standards, methodologies, protocols and tools for greenhouse gas accounting. The 3 standards published to date are:

Business and Biodiversity Offsets Program (BBOP)

The Business and Biodiversity Offsets Program (BBOP) is an international collaboration between over 70 companies, financial institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations. It aims to help companies to conserve biodiversity in an ecologically effective and economically efficient manner as they pursue their business goals.

Gold Standard

The Gold Standard is a set of criteria for certifying carbon offset projects and the carbon credits that they produce, focusing on energy efficiency, renewable energy, waste management and land use/forest projects. In addition, the Gold Standard Foundation are developing methodologies for water certification.

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Climate Action Reserve Protocols

The Climate Action Reserve is a programme that seeks to ensure the environmental integrity of GHG emissions reduction projects as well as create and support financial and environmental value in the U.S. carbon market. It does this by establishing standards for quantifying and verifying GHG emissions reduction projects, overseeing independent third party verification bodies, issuing carbon credits generated from such projects and tracking the credits over time on a transparent, publicly-accessible system. 

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Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards

The Climate, Community & Biodiversity (CCB) Standards are designed as an evaluation tool for any land management projects, including those that reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and avoid the degradation of forests (and other ecosystems), as well as projects that remove carbon dioxide by sequestering carbon (e.g. reforestation and sustainable agriculture). 

WWF Global Forest & Trade Network

Established in 1991, the Global Forest & Trade Network (GFTN) is a partnership between different actors in the timber supply chain committed to ensuring a sustainable forest sector, including more than 300 companies, NGOs, communities and entrepeneurs. 

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Ceres Coalition and Principles

The Ceres Coalition of investors, environmental organisations and other public interest groups states it’s mission as: ‘Integrating sustainability into capital markets for the health of the planet and people’. The coalition includes many Fortune 500 companies and is involved in improving the dialogue between multiple stakeholders through engagement and disclosure.

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